The pleural is the film that lines the thoracic (chest) cavity and covers the lungs. It resembles a huge sheet of tissue that folds over the outside of the lungs and lines within the chest pit. The chest (thoracic or pleural) cavity is a space that is encased by the spine, ribs, and sternum (bosom bone) and is isolated from the midsection by the stomach.

Types of Pleural Diseases
  • Hemothorax: Accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity.
  • Pleural effusion: Accumulation of excess fluid in the pleural cavity; this accumulation pushes against the lung and prevents full expansion with breathing.
  • Empyema: The accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity. This is a type of pleural effusion that is usually associated with pneumonia (an infection in the adjacent lung).
  • Pleural tumors: Dangerous cancers emerging from the pleura (for example mesothelioma) or spreading to the pleura (metastatic) from another site, and harmless cancers emerging from the pleura
  • Pneumothorax: Collection of air inside the pleural pit between the outside of the lung and within the rib confine.
Symptoms of Pleural Disorders
  • Shortness of breath
  • A cough
  • Fever and chills
  • Rapid, shallow breathing
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Sore throat that is followed by joint swelling and soreness
Causes Of Pleural Disorders
  • Viral, bacterial, and fungal infections
  • Lung cancer
  • Other lung diseases, such as sarcoidosis, asbestosis, and mesothelioma
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Familial Mediterranean fever
  • Parasites
  • Heart surgery
  • Chest injury (trauma)
  • Reaction to certain medications